Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) is an essential component of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl carrier protein (ACP). In both CoA and ACP, a derivative of pantothenic acid, 4′-phosphopantetheine, forms the active portion of the compound. COA is required for the chemical reactions that produce energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and for the synthesis of essential fats, cholesterol, certain hormones, and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ACP is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids. The principal functions of pantothenic acid are through CoA which is required for the synthesis of essential fats, sterols, steroid hormones, melatonin, acetylcholine, and heme (a part of hemoglobin and many metabolic proteins).
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